Branding в XXI веке. Манифест специалиста по коммуникациям
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    УСТНЫЕ ИСТОЧНИКИ ИНФОРМАЦИИ
    02.07.2013, 05:10

    Burnett, John & Moriarty, Sandra

    Устное слово: косвенный источник

    Большинство людей получают информацию из множества источников, которые не принадлежат финансирующим сообщения организациям. Эти внешние источники могут быть формально организованы, чтобы распространять подобную информа­цию (например, статьи из отчетов Управления по делам малого бизнеса или журнала «Consumer Reports»), предоставлять информацию в рамках своей профессиональ­ной деятельности (например, доклады врачей, инвестиционных аналитиков, авто­механиков) или могут предлагать индивидуальные мнения, которым доверяют в конкретных вопросах (точка зрения членов семьи, друзей, соседей или сотрудников по работе). Эксперты и люди, которые пользуются доверием, часто обеспечива­ют то, что обычно называется устной информацией. В отличие от производителей, продавцов или представителей компании устные источники информации не получа­ют выгоды от одобрения сообщения и не находятся под контролем спонсора.

    Гордон Вивер, исполнительный вице-президент Paramount Pictures, заявляет: «Устное слово — это наиболее важный из всех существующих элементов маркетин­га». Важность данного источника хорошо подтверждена документально. Следова­тельно, специалисты по маркетинговым коммуникациям должны пытаться воздей­ствовать на тех, кто может наладить процесс устной коммуникации.

    Starbucks Coffee Co. реализовывала именно такую стратегию, когда выводила свой товар на рынок в 1971 г. Она начала с маленького кофейного магазинчика на посещаемом туристами рынке Pike's Place в Сиэтле, одновременно предлагая бес­платную дегустацию напитка прохожим. Подталкиваемая чрезвычайно сильным процессом устной коммуникации компания провела в 1988 г. интегрированную маркетинговую кампанию, начав с рекламного плаката «Знакомство с удовольстви­ем» на городском транспорте и на рекламных щитах, который представлял собой картинки с иллюстрациями ингредиентов напитка. Позднее кампания была расши­рена при помощи брошюр и экспозиций в витринах магазинов. Продажа по почте, реклама которой печаталась в журнале «The New Yorker», также началась с предва­рительного тестирования национальных вкусов. Сегодня Starbucks обслуживает свыше 14 млн клиентов в день.

    Влияние негативной устной коммуникации подтверждено практикой. Когда в Microsoft столкнулись с негативными слухами в отношении «Windows 95», компа­ния немедленно организовала исследование потребительского рынка, протестиро­вала продукт и разрешила ее технические сложности Далеко не всякие проблемы порождают негативную молву. В каких случаях возникновение подобной ситуации наиболее вероятно? Альберт Хиршман предложил модель, дающую ответы на этот вопрос. Согласно Хиршману, неудовлетворенный потребитель может прореагиро­вать в рамках одного из трех вариантов.

    1. Отказ: добровольное прекращение отношений.

    2. Выражение мнения: всякая попытка изменить ситуацию при помощи доведе­ния своего недовольства до сведения фирмы или любого, кто хочет выслу­шать.

    3. Лояльность: данный клиент продолжает пользоваться неудовлетворитель­ным товаром или услугой продавца и страдает молча, рассчитывая на то, что вскоре ситуация улучшится.

    Ответ, который выберет потребитель, зависит как от личности человека, так и от характеристики данной отрасли. Основными индивидуальными характеристи­ками человека выступают: (1) оценка вероятности того, что жалоба поможет, (2) соотношение затрат и выгод в случае подачи жалобы и (3) искушенность потреби­теля, которая выражается, например, в умении подать жалобу.

    Категория: Элементы теории | Добавил: atamanov
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    50  
    п»їHairless Cat Breeds - The Epitome of Joy

    ‘Dogs have owners while cats have staff,’ goes a famous saying. Ancient Egyptian royalty considered cats as a holy blessing, while there have been instances during medieval Europe, where beautiful women were judged on their ability to look similar to cats.
    Cats come in different breeds, sizes and colors. One of the most mysterious cat breeds is the hairless cat, which appeared from time to time in Europe and United States. Such was the fascination for this breed that many rumors popped out from time to time.
    History of Hairless Cat Breeds
    The earliest accounts of hairless cats have been in the 18th century in South America, when some locals reported about seeing a strange looking cat, without hair. Later, some people in Paraguay confirmed seeing a species of cats which were hairless, but some locals were not sure if the cats they saw were a new hairless species of cats, or some other small wild animal.
    Mexican Hairless Cat Breeds
    Later, in the early part of the 19th century, some local Pueblo Indians gifted 2 cats (a male and a female) to a couple from New Mexico region. These Pablo Indians claimed that the cats were survivors of the Aztec cat breed; the point is debated till today.
    Unfortunately, the male cat died while the female cat was taken to Europe during the year 1903. Some decades later, there were news bytes of hairless cats being paraded in cats shows in Europe and United States, but these events didn’t have any substantial evidence attached to them.
    One of the most fascinating and earliest hairless cat breeds was the Mexican hairless breed, which according to various cat lovers went into oblivion, without providing any chances of mating. Also, whenever there was a sighting of a hairless cat couple, those folks somehow mysteriously never mated, or for that matter, if they did mate, they didn’t bring any offspring to this world.
    Later Breeds of Hairless Cats
    Second to the Mexican hairless, the Canadian hairless cats managed to maintain a consistent suspense filled state of affairs. Dubbed as the Sphynx or Sphinx, their traits are contributed by a recessive gene. With much interest from the general public, breeding of these Sphynx cats was in full swing in the 70s, but stopped later. The last lot of this breed was sent to Holland but unfortunately, this pair didn’t provide any offspring and some medical journals funnily confirmed that the Sphynx series was lost to fate and lack of mating based chemistry.
    But, with active interest, breeding and help from science, many other hairless cat breeds surfaced like Donskoy cat breed, Don Sphynx, Elf cat etc. Medically, hairless cats also have a very small layer of hair.
    Hairless cats are different, and they require different level of care as well. Their skin often feels oily as these cats don’t have hair to distribute or absorb oil. These are mostly indoor cats, as wind and sun take a toll on its skin. Usage of pet sun block is advised when these cats venture out. Fur lined basket, bed and dressing works well with these coatless cats.
    Lastly, these cats are special and hence need special care.

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    49  
    п»їBlast Those Fleas and Ticks with Eliminall Flea Treatment

    Fleas and ticks can cause a lot of unnecessary stress and can even lead to disease in your cat or dog, if you leave them untreated. There are simple ways to eliminate this pesky problem and Eliminall Flea Treatment is one of the most effective methods. The liquid formula will be sure to get rid of fleas and ticks, so you can relax in the knowledge that your cat or dog is free to roam the streets without infecting other animals.
    Why Choose Eliminall?
    The liquid formula of Eliminall Flea Treatment is very easy to use and can get rid of fleas and ticks within just 24 hours. It is small and compact, so anyone can use it with minimum fuss. It can also protect your cat or dog from fleas and ticks for up to four weeks. Eliminall Flea Treatment is one of the most widely used flea and tick treatments around, so you will know your cat or dog is in safe hands with this.
    What Not To Do
    Eliminall Flea Treatment is for use on cats and dogs, so don’t try using it yourself for fun, if you are this way inclined. It’s not big and it’s not clever! You should make sure it is suitable for your pet before you apply it, so it is a good idea to take it to the vet before applying the treatment. You should also ensure they are old enough for the treatment.
    Ensure the Eliminall Flea Treatment is applied to the skin and does not get into the eye of your cat or dog. If there are any adverse side effects after applying the treatment, you should stop using it straight away. It should also be applied on areas where the cat or dog won’t lick, as it is meant for external and not internal use. If your dog is sick or at all unwell, do not use the treatment until they are better, as it is likely to make them worse.
    What to Expect
    You can find Eliminall Flea Treatment in different sizes, depending on your cat or dog and the treatment they need. The cost of the treatment is affordable and you can expect it to last for at least four weeks. It should pretty much start working within the first day of treatment. Eliminall Flea Treatment is one of the most popular around, so you should expect it to do what it says on the tin (so to speak!)
    It should not cause any irritation, but in the unlikelihood of this happening, the treatment should be stopped straight away. It is simple to apply so shouldn’t cause any problems but it is a good idea to ensure your cat or dog is in a comfortable state before you use it on them, as this will make it more effective. If you are unsure then you should always take advice from somewhere like Pet Fleas who have experts on hand to help and make sure you make the right choice.

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    48  
    п»їWhat Is The General Criteria For Job Outsourcing?

    Outsourcing has come to be an integral part of the global economic scenario today. Thanks to the advances in technology, it is no longer essential to have the employer and the employee work together in the same office. They could be continents and time zones removed from each other and still manage to work successfully together. True, outsourcing has simplified (and saved) many a company's financial dilemma as well helped fill the vacuum of expertise and professional skills in several instances.
    That said, all jobs cannot be outsourced for obvious reasons. So, let's quickly examine the general criteria that determine exactly which jobs can (and should) be outsourced.
    The domains that lend themselves to easy outsourcing include:
    1. ITO — Information Technology Outsourcing. This is one of the most commonly outsourced domains to India since this country has proved itself to be one of the global leaders in IT and software development. A whopping 80 percent of the companies in the US and Europe voted India as their preferred destination when it came to IT outsourcing. In addition to Indian IT professionals being highly skilled in various IT-related fields, what acts a huge motivating factor is that fact that Indian outsourcing vendors have cutting-edge technology (latest hardware, software and infrastructure besides excellent satellite communication) at their disposal that makes IT outsourcing so popular.
    2. BPO — Business Process Outsourcing. Again, an extremely popular choice for outsourcing since all it really needs is people who have a proficiency in English and access to excellent communication channels. This domain largely depends on communication set-ups and includes running call centers, processing insurance claims and the like. For many small, medium, and large businesses, to outsource a call center is an excellent way to generate sales. To outsource to India a call center can enable companies to help current customers with 24x7 tech support and customer support issues.
    3. Software R&D — Offshore outsourcing of software application development makes its way to India all the time. Obviously, it makes sense to outsource to a country that has dominance in a particular field. A company can outsource the following software application services to India: custom application development, DotNet application development, DotNet application development using C#, application re-engineering, application migration (Java, .Net, Oracle and Database).
    4. KPO - Knowledge Process Outsourcing covers job processes that require a higher skill set such as reading X-Rays, performing investment research on stocks and bonds, handling the accounting functions for a business or executing engineering design projects.
    Why and when should a company really outsource? These questions need to be answered before taking the outsourcing plunge.
    Your checklist needs to have these boxes ticked.
    1. Is there a significant salary/ wage difference? Obviously, outsourcing involves investment of time, effort and resources. At the end of the day, it has to be worth all the effort. A significant wage difference can cut comparatively smaller hole in your monetary resources, thereby justifying the decision to outsource.
    2. Is it something that can work using only a telephone? Call centres are best left to those who have the infrastructure, manpower and excellent telephone connections in place.
    3. Can the work be transmitted over the Internet? Does your work involve writing content, making graphics, reading X-rays? Can these files be easily transmitted over the internet? If the answer is in the affirmative, then, yes, the work can be outsourced.
    4. Is it easy to setup and start the work? Work that requires intensive initial setup and a prolonged start-up time is best not outsourced since managing and supervising such work in a long-distance manner may not work out.
    5. Is the work repeatable? Building web pages, writing blogs, press releases and website articles, reading X-rays, coding, database management are all work that are more or less repeatable. So, yes, these jobs can be outsourced.
    Keeping these tips in mind should help a company to make a well-informed decision about outsourcing.

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    47  
    п»їThe Niche Test

    Contributed by Eben Pagan
    Over the past 15 years, I've built more than a dozen online businesses, all of which used digital products (ebooks, DVDs, MP3s, online Membership Sites, etc.) to deliver my teaching.
    In the process of building these products, I've discovered a set of critical elements that must be done right in order to succeed.
    If you get all of these elements right (in the right order), you have success. If you get even ONE of them wrong, it can cause you to fail.
    I call this the
    "Critical Path Of Success."
    Imagine a car.
    Now imagine all the things that must work in order for the car to work.
    First, the battery must work. Then, the engine must work. Then the transmission. The wheels and tires. The electrical system. The gas pedal and so on...
    If ANY of these elements doesn't work, the entire car doesn't work.
    And just like a car, if any of the key elements in your Critical Path doesn't work, your entire business doesn't work!
    Now when it comes to building a successful digital products business, the first Critical Path element is finding the right niche.
    If you target the wrong niche, it's just like having a dead battery in your car.
    The best motor and the nicest wheels can't take you anywhere if the battery doesn't start the car.
    Likewise, the nicest website with the hottest marketing in the world won't work if your niche doesn't work.
    If you get the niche right, however, everything else you do in your business will be easier and more effective.
    If you get the niche wrong, everything else may be hard…or even impossible.
    Luckily, I've developed a proven method for identifying niches that are virtually guaranteed to be successful.
    I call it...
    "The Niche Test"
    The Niche Test is a set of 3 questions that you can use to test the potential of any niche or product idea you have before you invest time and money into it.
    If you get three "Yes's," you've got a niche or a product with a high potential of success.
    If you don't get three "Yes's," you'll want to keep searching until you do.
    Here are the 3 questions:
    1. Are your customers experiencing pain, urgency or irrational passion?
    In other words are they triggered emotionally? If they are not experiencing emotional pain or strong passion then it's probably not a good idea for a product or niche because your potential customers are not motivated enough to consider making a change.
    2. Is your customer proactively looking for solutions?
    Is your customer actually getting off their butts and looking for a solution? Are they motivated enough to take action? If they are not proactively looking for solutions, then you would have to talk them into wanting your product, which is usually an uphill battle.
    3. Does your customer have few or no perceived options?
    The more options your customer has, the more competitive it'll be for you. You want the problem you solve to be specific enough that when your customer finds your solution they say, “Wow! I really haven’t seen anything quite like this.”
    That’s when you can charge higher prices and literally dominate the market.
    If you enjoyed this article and would like more advanced training like it, I'm releasing a brand-new training program called the "Digital Product Blueprint."
    This is a complete program that teaches you everything you need to know to create highly profitable digital products online.

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